Apologetics Bibliography

Brad Johnson

Author PhotoBrad Johnson is a Teaching / Research Assistant in the Theology and Philosophy Departments of Cincinnati Bible College & Seminary. Much of his research revolves around inter-religious dialog, philosophical apologetics, and the interplay of Christology upon both. He can be reached through electronic mail at BAJ75@aol.com


General Works

Allen, Diogenes. Christian Belief in a Postmodern World: The Full Wealth of Conviction. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989.

Bartholomew, David J. Uncertain Beliefs: Is It Rational to be a Christian? Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Boyd, Robert. A. Boyd’s Handbook of Practical Apologetics: Scientific Facts, Fulfilled Prophecies and Archaeological Discoveries That Confirm the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1996.

Campolo, Anthony. We Have Met the Enemy, And they Are Partly Right. Dallas: Waco Publishing, 1985.

Carson, D. A. The Gagging of God. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1996.

Clark, David. Dialogical Apologetics. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1993.

Clark, Kelly James. Return To Reason: A Critique of Enlightenment Evidentialism and a Defense of Reason and Belief in God. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1990.

Corduan, Winfriend. No Doubt About It: The Case for Christianity. Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1997.

Cottrell, Jack. What the Bible Says About God the Creator. Joplin, Mo.: College Press, 1983.

- - -. What the Bible Says About God the Ruler. Joplin, Mo.: College Press, 1984.

Craig, William Lane. Reasonable Faith: Christian Truth and Apologetics, rev. ed. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books, 1994..

Evans, C. Stephen. Why Believe? Reason and Mystery as Pointers to God. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1998.

Frame, John. Apologetics to the Glory of God: An Introduction. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1994. A good modern presentation of presuppositional apologetics. Highly regarded by D. A. Carson.

Gardner, Lynn. Christianity Stands True: A Common Sense Look at the Evidence. Joplin, Mo.: College Press, 1994.

Geisler, Norman L. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1999. A fine evangelical reference.

- - -. Christian Apologetics, rev. ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1988.

Geisler, Norman L. and Ron Brooks. When Skeptics Ask: A Handbook of Christian Evidences. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1990.

Glynn, Patrick. God: The Evidence - The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason in a Postsecular World. Rocklin, Calif.: Prima Publishing, 1997.

Griffiths, Paul J. An Apology for Apologetics: A Study in the Logic of Interreligious Dialogue. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.

Hebblethwaite, Brian. The Ocean of Truth: A Defense of Objective Theism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Hunt, Dave. In Defense of the Faith: Biblical Answers to Challenging Questions. Eugene, Or.: Harvest, 1996.

Kreeft, Peter and Ronald K. Tacelli. Handbook of Christian Apologetics. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994. A mini-encyclopedia of apologetics.

Lewis, Gordon Russell. Testing Christianity’s Truth Claims: Approaches to Christian Apologetics. Lanham, Md.: University of American Press, 1990, rep. 1976.

Mayers, Ronald. Balanced Apologetics: Using Evidences and Presuppositions in Defense of the Faith. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel Publishing, 1996.

McGrath, Alister. Intellectuals Don’t Need God and Other Modern Myths: Building Bridges to Faith Through Apologetics. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1993.

- - -. A Passion for Truth. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1996.

Montgomery, John. Christianity and History. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1986.

- - -. Faith Founded on Fact. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1978.

Moreland, J. P. Scaling the Secular City. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1987.

Murray, Michael J., ed. Reason for the Hope Within. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1999. By American Christian philosophers. Many relevant chapters.

Nash, Ronald. Faith and Reason: Searching for a Rational Faith. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1988. Very good conservative introduction.

- - -. Worldviews in Conflict: Choosing Christianity in a World of Ideas. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1992.

Newbigin, Lesslie. The Gospel in a Pluralist Society. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1989.

Phillips, Timothy R. and Dennis L. Okholm, eds. Christian Apologetics in a Postmodern World. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1995.

Ramm, Bernard. A Christian Appeal to Reason. Waco, Tx.: Word, 1977.

- - -. Varieties of Christian Apologetics. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1973.

Sire, James W. The Universe Next Door: A Basic World View Catalog, 3d ed. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1997.

Sproul, R. C. Classical Apologetics: A Rational Defense of the Christian Faith and a Critique of Presuppositional Evidences. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1989.

Story, Dan. Defending Your Faith: Reliable Answers for a New Generation of Seekers and Spiritual Seekers. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1998.

Strobel, Lee. The Case for Christ: A Journalist’s Personal Investigation of the Evidence for Jesus. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1998. The award-winning former journalist questions several leading scholars concerning apologetic issues.

Van Till, Cornelius. The Defense of the Faith. Phillipsburg, N. J.: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1967.

Zacharias, Ravi. A Shattered Visage: The Real Face of Atheism. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1993.

- - -. Can Man Live Without God? Waco, Tx.: Word, 1994..

Zuck, Roy. Vital Apologetics Issues. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1996.

General Philosophy / Philosophy of Religion

Adler, Mortimer. The Great Ideas: A Lexicon of Western Thought. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.

- - -. Ten Philosophical Mistakes, rev. ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

- - -. Truth in Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1990.

Alston, William P. Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Anselm, St.  Basic Writings: Proslogium, Monologium, Gaunilon’s: On Behalf of the Fool, Cur Deus Homo, Translated by S. W. Deane. 2d ed.. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1962.

Audi, Robert and William J. Wainwright, eds. Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment: New Essays in the Philosophy of Religion. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986. Authors include Mavrodes and Plantinga.

Bartholomew, David. Uncertain Beliefs: Is It Rational to be a Christian? New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Evaluates the evidence for probability.

Beckwith, Francis J. and Gregory Koukl. Relativism: Feet Firmly Planted in Mid-Air. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1998. Focuses especially on moral absolutes.

Centore, F. F. Being and Becoming: A Critique of Postmodernism. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing, 1991.

Ciapalo, Roman. Postmodernism and Christianity. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1997.

Clark, Kelly James, ed. Philosophers Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Eleven Leading Thinkers. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1993. Includes Plantinga, Swinburne, Adler, Stephen Davis, and Basil Mitchell.

Davies, Brian. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Davis, Stephen. God, Reason, and Theistic Proofs. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1997.

- - -. Logic and the Nature of God. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1983.

Erickson, Millard J. Postmodernizing the Faith: Evangelical Responses to the Challenge of Postmodernism. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1998.

- - -. Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1985. Good conservative introduction.

Evans, Stephan. The Quest for Faith: Reason and Mystery as Pointers to God. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1986.

Ewing, A. C. Value and Reality. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1973.

Geisler, Norman L. and Paul Feinberg. Introduction to Philosophy: A Christian Perspective, 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich. Baker, 1987. Systematic discussion of knowledge, reality, the ultimate, the right.

Geisler, Norman L and Ronald M. Brooks. Come Let Us Reason. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1990. A good introduction to the rules of logic.

Geivett, R. Douglas and Brenden Sweetman, eds. Contemporary Perspectives on Religious Epistemology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hick, John H., ed. Arguments for the Existence of God. Philosophy of Religion series. New York: Herder, 1971.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by Norman Kemp Smith. New York: St. Martin’s, 1965.

Kreeft, Peter. The Journey: A Spiritual Roadmap for Modern Pilgrims. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1997.

Mavrodes, George I. Belief in God: A Study in the Epistemology of Religion. Lanham, Md.: University of America Press, 1981; reprint of 1970 Random House edition. Mavrodes is an evangelical philosopher.

McCallum, Dennis, ed. The Death of Truth: Finding your Way Through the Maze of Mulitculturalism, Inclusivism, and the New Postmodern Diversity. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1996..

McGrath, Alistair. A Passion of Truth. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1996.

Mitchell, Basil. The Justification of Religious Belief. London: Macmillan, 1973.

Moreland, J. P. Love Your God with All Your Mind: The Role of Reason in the Life of the Soul. Colorado Springs, Colo.: NavPress, 1997.

Morris, Thomas V. The Logic of God Incarnate. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Morris, Thomas V., ed. Divine and Human Action: Essays on the Metaphysics of Theism. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988.

Okholm, Dennis L. Invitation to Philosophy: Issues and Options, 7th ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1995.

Nash, Ronald H. Life’s Ultimate Questions: An Introduction to Philosophy. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1999.

Peterson, Michael, et al. Reason and Religious Belief: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Phillips, Timothy R. and Dennis L. Okholm, eds. Christian Apologetics in the Postmodern World. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVaristy, 1995.

Plantinga, Alvin. Warrant and Proper Function. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Pojman, Louis P., ed. Philosophy of Religion, 4th ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing, 1997. An excellent anthology of modern issues.

Rorty, William. The Consequences of Pragmatism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982. Examines the issue by embracing the consequences of philosophic pragmatism.

Rowe, William L. Philosophy of Religion, 2d ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1993.

Rowe, William L. and William J. Wadsworth, eds. Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings, 2d ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1989.

Trueblood, D. Elton. General Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row, 1963, reprint, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1976. The first six chapters are especially good.

- - -. Philosophy of Religion. New York: Harper & Row, 1957.

Sire, James W. Why Should Anyone Believe Anything At All? Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994.

Veith, Gene. Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Contemporary Thought and Culture. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books, 1994.

Wood, W. Jay. Epistemology: Becoming Intellectually Virtuous. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1998.

Yandell, Keith. Christianity and Philosophy. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans 1984.

Zagzebski, Linda, ed. Rational Faith: Catholic Responses to Reformed Epistemology. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993. Catholic philosophers respond to Plantinga, Wolterstorff, Mavrodes, etc.

Supernatural / Religious Experience

Alston, William P. Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993. Argues that direct experiential awareness of God makes a major contribution to the grounds for religious belief.

Clouser, Roy. Knowing With the Heart: Religious Experience and Belief in God. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1998. Faith based on experience.

Davis, Caroline F. The Evidential Force of Religious Experience. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Says the burden of proof is on the skeptic.

Evans, Stephen. Subjectivity and Religious Belief. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1978.

Gutting, Gary. Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1982.

James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Modern Library, 1902.

Middlemiss, David. Interpreting Charismatic Experience. London: SCM, 1996. Asks, "If a person claims to have encountered God in his or her experience, how can one tell if this is what has really occured?" (vii) Says the burden of proof is on the one having the experience.

Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the Holy, translated by J. W. Harvey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1923.

Stace, Walter T. Time and Eternity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Taylor, A. E. "The Argument from Religious Experience." In Arguments for the Existence of God, edited by John H. Hick, pp. 153-64. New York: Herder, 1971.

Underhill, Evelyn. Mysticism. New York: New American Library, 1955.

Wainwright, William J. "Mysticism and Sense Perception." In Contemporary Philosophy of Religion, edited by Stephen M. Cahn and David Shatz, pp. 123-45. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

- - -. Mysticism: A Study of its Nature, Cognitive Value and Moral Implications. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.

Existence of God

Adams, Robert. "Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief." In Rationality and Religious Belief, edited by C. F. Delaney, pp. 116-40. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979.

- - -. How to Think About God: A Guide for the 20th Century Pagan. New York: Macmillan, 1980. Defends a version of the cosmological argument.

Barnes, Jonathan. The Ontological Argument. London: Macmillan, 1972.

Barrow, John D. and Frank J. Tipler. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Beisner, Calvin. Answers for Atheists, Agnostics, and Other Thoughtful Skeptics: Dialogs About Christian Faith and Life. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books, 1993.

Bowker, John.  Is Anybody Out There? Religions and Belief in God in the Contemporary World. Westminster, Md.: Christian Classics, 1988.

Braine, D. The Reality of Time and the Existence of God: The Project of Proving God’s Existence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Burrill, Donald, ed. The Cosmological Argument. New York: Doubleday, 1967. A good anthology, including both the cosmological and teleological argument.s

Corey, Michael E. God and the New Cosmology: The Anthropic Design Argument. Lanham, Md: University of America Press, 1993. Believes that recently-discovered physical and cosmological facts prove the existence of God beyond reasonable doubt.

Craig, William Lane and Quentin Smith. Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Craig argues that God caused the Big Bang; Smith argues that it had not cause.

Craig William Lane. The Kalam Cosmological Argument. New York: Barnes & Nobles, 1979.

- - -. "The Telelogical Argument and the Anthropic Principle." In The Logic of Rational Theism. eds. William L. Craig and M. McLeod. Lewiston, N.Y. Edwin Mellen, 1990. Pp. 127-53.

Davis, Stephen T. God, Reason, and Theistic Proofs. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1997.

Demski, William A., ed. Mere Christianity: Science, Faith, and Intelligent Design. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1998.

Gale, Richard. On the Nature and Existence of God. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Survey of recent arguments.

Helm, Paul. Divine Commands and Morality. Readings in Philosophy series. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Horigan, James E. Chance or Design? New York: Philosophical Library, 1979.

Leslie, John. Universes. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Mavrodes, George. Belief in God. New York: Random House, 1970.

Messer, Richard. Does God’s Existence Need Proof? New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Miethe, Terry L. Why Believe? God Exists: Rethinking the Case for God and Christianity. Joplin, Mo.: College Press, 1993.

Miethe, Terry and Antony Flew. Does God Exist? A Believer and an Atheist Debate. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1991. Foreward by Hans Kung; essays by Alfred Ayer and R. Swinburne. Miethe is a scholar from the Christian Church/Church of Christ.

Mitchell, Basil. Morality: Religious and Secular. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.

Mixie, Joseph R. The Atheist Trap. Lanham, Md: University of America Press, 1994. How God’s existence can be proven in today’s world, by today’s standards. History of arguments from design. Praised by John J. Davis

Moreland, J. P and Kai Nielsen. Does God Exist? The Debate Between Theists and Atheists. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Press, 1993. Debate between Moreland and the atheist Nielsen, with contributions of some other notable philosophers like Antony Flew and William Lane Craig. Moreland is regarded by both sides as the "victor."

Plantinga, Alvin. God and Other Minds: A Study of the Rational Justification of Belief in God. Contemporary Philosophers series. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967.

- - -. The Nature of Necessity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974. Classic presentation of the ontological argument.

Plantinga, Alvin, ed. The Ontological Argument from St. Anselm to Contemporary Philosopher. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965.

Plantinga, Alvin and Nicholas Wolterstorff, eds. Faith and Rationality: Reason and Belief in God. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984.

Prevost, Robert. Probablity and Theistic Explanation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Compares the views of Basil Mitchell and Richard Swinburne.

Rowe, William L. The Cosmological Argument. New York: Fordham University Press, 1988.

Schaeffer, Francis A. The God Who is There: 30th Anniversary Edition. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1998. New introduction by James Sire.

Swinburne, Richard. The Coherence of Theism, rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993 (1977). Philosophically defends a view of God compatible with Biblical theism.

- - -. The Existence of God, rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991 (1979). A defense of theism. Includes two new appendices.

- - -. Is there a God? New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Simplified version of The Existence of God. Praised by evangelicals. Uses scientific reasoning to establish God’s existence.

Tennant, F. R. Philosophical Theology. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928- 30. Includes a defense of a modified teleological argument.

Thompson, Bert and Wayne Jackson. The Case for the Existence of God. Montgomery, Ala: Apologetics Press, 1995.

Reliability of Scripture

Aland, Kurt and Barbara Aland. The Text of the New Testament, 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1989.

Anderson, J. N. D. Christianity: The Witness of History. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1970.

Archer, Gleason L. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1982.

Barfield, Kenny. The Prophet Motive: Examine the Reliability of the Biblical Prophets. Nashville: Gospel Advocate, 1995.

Barnett, Paul. Is the New Testament History? London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1986.

Black, David A. and David S. Dockery, eds. New Testament Criticism and Interpretation. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1991.

Blomberg, Craig L. The Historical Reliability of the Gospels. Leicester and Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1987.

Borg, Marcus. Jesus in Contemporary Scholarship. Valley Forge, Pa.: Trinity Free Press, 1994. A Jesus Seminar member’s perspective.

Boyd, Gregory A. Cynic Sage or Son of God?. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor, 1995.

Brantley, Garry K. Digging for Answers: Has Archaeology Disproved the Bible? Montgomery, Ala.: Apologetics Press, 1995.

Bruce, F. F.. Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1974.

- - -. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?, 5th ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1960

Carson, D. A. and John D. Woodbridge, eds. Hermeneutics, Authority, and Canon. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1986.

- - -. Scripture and Truth. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1983; reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992. Scholarly conservative essays on inerrancy

Copan, Paul, ed. Will the Real Jesus Please Stand Up? A Debate Between William Lane Craig and John Dominic Crossan. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1998. Includes dialog between evangelicals and members of the Jesus Seminar on the resurrection of Christ.

Crossan, John Dominic. The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1991. Crossan is the co-founder of the Jesus Seminar.

Dunn, James D. G. The Evidence for Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1985.

Evans, C. Stephen. The Historical Christ & The Jesus of Faith: The Incarnational Narrative as History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

France, R. T. The Evidence for Jesus. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1986.

France, R. T. "The Gospels as Historical Sources for Jesus, the Founder of Christianity," Truth 1 (1985): 81-87.

France, R. T., David Wenham, and Craig Blomberg, eds. Gospel Perspectives. 6 vols. Sheffield: Journal for the Study of the New Testament, 1980-86. Highly recommended scholarly evangelical response to the Jesus Seminar.

Geisler, Norman L., ed. Inerrancy. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1979. The definitive conservative defense of inerrancy.

Green, Joel B., Scot McKnight, and I. Howard Marshall, eds. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1992.

Green, Michael. Was Jesus Who He Said He Was? Ann Arbor, Mich.: Servant Publishing, 1989.

Greenleaf, Simon. The Testimony of the Evangelists: The Gospels Examined by the Rules of Evidence. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1995. Legal procedures of the trial of Jesus.

Gruenler, Royce Gordon. New Approaches to Jesus and the Gospels: A Phenomenological and Exegetical Study of Synoptic Christology. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker, 1982.

Habermas, Gary R. The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ. Joplin, Mo.: College Press, 1996. Defends the historical accuracy of the evangelical view of Christ given in the Gospels. Uses archaeology, textual, and extra-biblical evidence.

- - -. The Verdict of History. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1988.

Mack, Burton. A Myth of Innocence: Mark and Christian Origins. San Francisco: Fortress Press, 1988.

Marshall, I. Howard. I Believe in the Historical Jesus. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1977.

- - -.. The Origins of New Testament Christology. Issues in Contemporary Theology series. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1976.

Mitton, C. Leslie. Jesus: The Facts Behind the Faith. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1974.

Moule, C. F. D. The Birth of the New Testament, 3d. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1981.

Robinson, John A. T. Redating the New Testament. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976.

Stanton, G. N. Jesus of Nazareth in New Testament Preaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.

Stein, Robert H. Difficult Passages in the Gospels. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1984.

Twelftree, Graham H. Jesus the Miracle Worker: A Historical and Theological Study. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1999.

Wilkins, Michael J. and J. P. Moreland, eds. Jesus Under Fire: Modern Scholarship Reinvents the Historical Jesus. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1995.

Wright, N. T. The New Testament and the People of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992.

- - -. Who Was Jesus?  London: SPCK, 1992.

Yamauchi, Edwin. The Stones and the Scriptures. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1972.


Broad, C. D. "Hume’s Theory of the Credibility of the Miracles." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 17 (1916-17).

Brown, Colin. Miracles and the Critical Mind. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1984.

Flew, Antony. "Miracles." In Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Paul Edwards. New York: Macmillan, 1966. An atheist’s perspective and examination of the issue.

Giesler, Norman L. Miracles and Modern Thought. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondevan, 1982.

Geivett, R. Douglas and Gary Habermas, eds. In Defense of Miracles: A Comprehensive Case For God’s Action in History. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1997.

Holland, R. F. "The Miraculous." American Philosophical Quarterly 2 (1965): 43-51.

Lewis, C. S. Miracles: A Preliminary Study. New York: Macmillan, 1947.

Nowell-Smith Patrick. "Miracles." In New Essays in Philosophical Theology, edited by Antony Flew and Alasdair MacIntyre. London: Macmillan, 1955. Another atheist perspective.

Smart, Ninian. Philosophers and Religious Truth. Chap. 2. London: SCM, 1964. A strong defense of the logical possibility of miracles.

Swinburne, Richard. The Concept of Miracle. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

Resurrection of Christ

Bode, E. L. The First Easter Morning. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1970.

Craig, William Lane. Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus. Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity 16. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1989.

Craig, William Lane. Knowing the Truth About the Resurrection: Our Response to the Empty Tomb. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Servant Publications, 1988.

- - -. The Son Rises. Chicago: Moody Press, 1981.

Davis, Stephen T., et al., eds. The Resurrection: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Resurrection of Jesus. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

- - -. Risen Indeed: Making Sense of the Resurrection. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1993.

Geisler, Norman L. The Battle for the Resurrection. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1989.

Habermas, Gary R. The Resurrection of Jesus: An Apologetic. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1980.

Ladd, George E. I Believe in the Resurrection of Jesus. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1975.

Lapide, Pinchas. The Resurrection of Jesus: A Jewish Perspective. Translated by Wilhelm C. Linss. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1983.

Miethe, Terry L., ed. Did Jesus Rise From the Dead? The Resurrection Debate. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987.

Proctor, William. The Resurrection Report: A Journalist Investigates the Most Debated Event in History. Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1998.

Van Inwagen Peter. The Possibility of Resurrection and Other Essays in Christian Apologetics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Publishing, 1998.

Yamauchi, Edwin. "Easter – Myth, Hallucination, or History?" (2 parts) Christianity Today, 29 March 1974; 15 April 1974.


Behe, Michael. Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. New York: The Free Press, 1996.

Clark, Gordon H. The Philosophy of Science and Belief in God. Nutley, N.J.: Craig, 1964.

Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of the Species. New York: New American Library, 1958. Reprint from 1859.

Davis, Percival, and Dean H. Kenyon. Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins. Dallas: Houghton, 1989.

Denton, Michael. Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. London: Burnett Books, 1985.

- - -. Nature’s Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Drees, Willem B. Beyond the Big Bang: Quantum Cosmologies and God. Peru, Ill.: Open Court, 1990. Presents difficulties in using the Big Bang to "prove" creation.

Einstein, Albert. Ideas and Opinions – The World as I See It, 3d ed. New York: Crown, 1982.

Geisler, Norman L. and J. Kerby Anderson. Origin Science: A Proposal for the Creation- Evolution Controversy. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1987.

Gish, Duane T. The Challenge of the Fossil Record. El Cajon, Calif.: Master, 1985.

- - -. Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No! Green Forest: Master Books, 1996.

Hawking, Stephen. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York: Bantam, 1988.

Heeren, Fred. Show Me God: What the Message from Space is Telling Us About God. Wheeling, Ill.: Day Star Publishing, 1997.

Hoyle, Fred. The Intelligent Universe. London: Joseph, 1985.

Hubner, Kurt.  Critique of Scientific Reason, translated by Paul R. Dixon and Hollis M. Dixon Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Jaki, Stanley L. The Road of Science and the Ways to God. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Jastrow, Robert. God and the Astronomers. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1978. A secular scientist explains the Big Bang concept and reflects on its significance for theism.

Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1991.

- - -.. Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law and Education. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1995.

Laudan, Larry. Progress and Its Problems: Toward a Theory of Scientific Growth. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Lester, Lane P. and Raymond G. Bohlin. The Natural Limits to Biological Change. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1984.

Lubenow, Marvin L. Bones of Contention. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1992.

Moreland, J. P. Christianity and the Nature of Science. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1989.

Moreland, J. P., ed. The Creation Hypothesis: Scientific Evidences for an Intelligent Designer. Grand Rapids, Mich.: InterVaristy, 1994. Scientific and other experts consider philosophical arguments as to whether it is possible to know if an intelligent Designer had a role in Creation.

Moreland, J. P. and John Mark Reynolds. Three Views on Creation and Evolution. Counterparts series. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1999. Presents the three main evangelical views: young earth creationism, old earth creationism, and fully gifted creation. Contributions from the likes of Phillip E. Johnson and Richard H. Bube.

Morris, Henry M. Scientific Creationism. El Cajon, Calif.: Master, 1974.

Pagels, Heinz R. Perfect Symmetry: The Search for the Beginning of Time. London: Penguin, 1992.

Paley, William. Natural Theology. Charlottesville, Va.: Ibis Publishing, 1986. Reprint of the classic work which defends the teleological argument.

Peacocke, A. R., ed. The Sciences and Theology in the Twentieth Century. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981.

Pearcey, Nancy. The Soul of Science: Christian Faith and Natural Philosophy. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books, 1994.

Pitman, Michael. Adam and Evolution. London: Rider, 1984.

Quinn, Philip. "The Philosopher of Science as Expert Witness." In Science and Rationality, edited by James T. Cushing, C. F. Delaney, and Gary Gutting, pp. 32-53. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984.

Ramm, Bernard. The Christian View of Science and Scripture. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1954.

Ross, Hugh. Creation and Time. Colorado Springs, Colo.: NavPress, 1994.

- - -. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Greatest Scientific Discoveries of the Century Reveal God. Colorado Springs, Colo.: NavPress, 1993.

- - -. The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Reveal the Unmistakable Identity of the Creator. Orange, Calif.: Promise, 1989.

- - -. The Genesis Question: Scientific Advances and the Accuracy of Genesis. Colorado Springs, Colo. NavPress, 1998.

Schoen, Edward L. Religious Explanations: A Model from the Sciences. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1985.

Schroeder, Gerald H. Genesis and the Big Bang: The Discovery of Harmony Between Modern Science and the Bible. New York: Bantam, 1990. Tries to equate the events after the Big Bang with the six days of Genesis 1.

Shapiro, Robert. Origins. New York: Summit, 1986.

Sproul, R. C. Not a Chance: The Myth of Chance in Modern Science and Cosmology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1994.

Templeton, John Mark. God Who Would Be Known: Revelations of the Divine in Contemporary Science. Radnor, Penn.: Templeton Foundation Press, 1998.

Thaxton, Charles B, Walter L. Bradley, and Roger L. Olsen. The Mystery of Life’s Origin: Reassessing Current Theories. New York: Philosophical Library, 1984.

Wesson, Robert. Cosmos and Metacosmos. Peru, Ill.: Open Court, 1989. Says the universe has so much evidence of design that the "Metacosmos" must contain something like creativity, intelligence and purpose. Calls his view "nontheistic nonmaterialism."

The Problem of Evil

Adams, Jay E. The Grand Demonstration: A Biblical Study of the So-Called Problem of Evil. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Eastgate Pub., 1991.

Adams, Marilyn McCord and Robert Merrihew Adams, eds. The Problem of Evil. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Collection of recent scholarship on the subject.

Bowker, John. Problems of Suffering in the Religions of the World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Brand, Paul and Phillip Yancey. Pain: The Gift Nobody Wants. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1993.

Carson, D. A. How Long, O Lord? Reflections on Suffering and Evil. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1990. A Reformed Biblical study.

Craig, William L. No Easy Answers: Finding Hope in Doubt, Failure, and Unanswered Prayer. Chicago: Moody Press, 1990.

Davis, Stephen T., ed. Encountering Evil: Live Options in Theodicy. Atlanta: John Knox, 1981. A good survey of defenders of major views, including Hick, Griffin, and Davis himself. Davis is a moderate evangelical who presents the Free Will Defense.

Edwards, Brian H. Not By Chance: Making Sense Out of Suffering. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Evangelical Press, 1986. A deterministic explanation.

Feinberg, John S. The Many Faces of Evil: Theological Systems and the Problems of Evil. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1994. A revision of Theologies and Evil (Lanham, Md.: University of America, 1979). Another deterministic explanation.

Geach, Peter. Providence and Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Geivett, R. Douglas. Evil and the Evidence for God: The Challenge of John Hick’s Theodicy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995.

Geisler, Norman L. The Roots of Evil. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1978.

Griffin, David Ray. Evil Revisited: Responses and Reconsiderations. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1991. Response to critiques of the following volume.

- - -. God, Power, and Evil: A Process Theodicy. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976; reprint Lanham, Md.: University of Press America, 1990. How process theology explains evil.

Hall, Douglas J. God and Human Suffering: An Exercise in the Theology of the Cross. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1987.

Hebblethwaite, Brian. Evil, Suffeeering and Religions. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1976.

Hick, John. Evil and the God of Love, 2d ed. New York: Harper, 1977. A defense of the "soul- building" view.

Kushner, Harold S. When Bad Things Happen to Good People. New York: Avon Books, 1981; reprint of 1981 edition by Schocken. A popular work that "defends" God by denying his omnipotence.

Lewis, C. S. The Problem of Pain. New York: Macmillan, 1978 (1943).

Peterson, Michael. Evil and the Christian God. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1982. An excellent evangelical presentation.

Peterson, Michael L., ed. The Problem of Evil: Selected Readings. Library of Religious Philosophy series. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992.

Plantinga, Alvin. God, Freedom and Evil. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1974. A classic defense of the Free Will Defense.

- - -. Learning to Live With Evil. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1982.

Richard, Lucien. What Are They Saying About the Theology of Suffering? Mahwah, N. J.: Paulist Press, 1993. Surveys of major theologians.

Stewart, Melville Y. The Greater Good Defence: An Essay on the Rationality of Faith. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. Examines Plantinga and the Free Will Defense, as well as Hick’s "soul-making" view.

Vardy, Peter. The Puzzle of Evil. San Francisco: Harper, 1993.

Wall, George, B. Is God Really Good? Conversations with a Theodicist. Lanham, Md.: University of America, 1983.

Whitney, Barry L. Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography. Hamden, Conn.: Garland, 1993.

- - -. What Are They Saying About God and Evil? Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1989.

Yancey, Philip. Disappointment With God: Three Questions No One Asks Aloud. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1988.

- - -. Where is God When It Hurts. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1977.


Camus, Albert. The Plague, translated by S. Gilbert. New York: Modern Library, 1948.

Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1986.

Edwards, Paul. "Atheism." Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan, 1996.

Findlay, J. N. "Can God’ Existence Be Disproves?" In Ontological Argument, ed. Alvin Plantinga. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1965.

Flew, Antony. God and Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row, 1961.

- – -. The Presumption of Atheism. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1976.

Hepburn, Ronald W. "Agnosticism," Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan, 1996.

Hume, David. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, ed. J. C. Gaskin. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Reprint of a classic attack on the theistic proofs.

Johnson, B. C. The Atheist Debater’s Handbook. Buffalo: N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1983.

Kurtz, Paul, ed. Humanist Manifesto I & II. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1973.

Le Poidevin, R. Arguing for Atheism: An Introduction the Philosophy of Religion. London and New York: Routledge, 1996

MacIntyre, Alasdair. Difficulties in Christian Belief. London: SCM Press, 1956.

Mackie, J. L. The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982. One of the best defenses of atheism.

Martin, Michael. Atheism: A Philosophical Justification. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Montagu, Ashley, ed.. Science and Creationism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. A strong attack against creationism. Contributions by Stephen Jay Gould and Isaac Asimov.

Nielsen, Kai. "Agnosticism," Dictionary of the History of Ideas, ed. P. P. Wiener. New York: Macmillan, 1977.

- - -. "Atheism," Encyclopedia Britannica (1983).

- - -. "In Defense of Atheism," Perspectives in Education, Religion and the Arts, ed. H. Kiefer and M. Munitz. New York, 1970.

- - -. Philosophy and Atheism: In Defense of Atheism. Buffalo, N. Y.: Prometheus Books, 1985.

Parsons, Keith. God and the Burden of Proof: Plantinga, Swinburne, and the Analytical Defense of Theism. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1989. A humanistic critique.

Pennock, Robert T. Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999.

Russell, Bertrand. The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. Edited by Robert E. Egner and Lester E. Denonn. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1961.

Sagan, Carl. Cosmos. New York: Random House, 1980.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Being and Nothingness. Translated by Hazel Barner. New York: Philosophical Library, 1956.

Smith, George. Atheism: The Case Against God. Los Angeles: Nash, 1974.

- - -. God Pro and Con: A Bibliography of Atheism. New York: Garland, 1990.

Stein, Gordon, ed. An Anthology of Atheism and Rationalism. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Boos, 1980.

Internet Resources

Leadership University: http://www.leaderu.com An excellent web site that houses the "virtual office" of William Lane Craig and Phillip Johnson. Herein, there are numerous scholarly articles previously published in journals, as well as several direct links to other useful apologetic sites. The definitive apologetic resource on the web.

Reasons to Believe: http://www.reasons.org Hugh Ross’s web site. Most beneficial is this site’s Links page - one of the best resources in finding apologetic sites on the internet. Click on "RESOURCES"on the main page, to find the links.

Origins: http://www.origins.com Focuses on intelligent design and philosophical theism.

The 2001 Principle: http://www.2001principle.net"Scientific and philosophical study of the origin and creation of the universe based on a critical look at the Anthropic Principle, Fine Tuning of the constants of physics, cosmology, ideas of Dr Gerald Schroeder, John Wheeler, Paul Davies and other physicists and cosmologists, and audience impact of 2001 A Space Odyssey." Highly recommended.

Creation, Creationism, and Empirical Arguments: http://ic.net/~erasmus/RAZ15.HTM A very helpful linking page to articles by William Lane Craig, J. P. Moreland, Nancy Pearcy, among others.

Faith Quest: http://www.faithquest.com/enter.html "A site dedicated to faith and doubt with online collections from a number of prominent philosophers including Marilyn Adams, Nicholas Rescher, Alvin Plantinga, Richard Swinburne, and many others."

Sacred Texts and Religious Literature: http://scholar.cc.emory.edu/scripts/schol/ipev.html A good resource for translations of the sacred texts of many religions.

Virtual Religion Index: http://religion.rutgers.edu/links/vrindex.html The best online resource for information on world religions.

Access Research Network: http://www.arn.org/ Features articles by Phillip E. Johnson, Michael Behe, and William Dembski.

Counterbalance: http://www.counterbalance.org/stdweb/info.html A scholarly forum discussing the compatibility of science and religion.

John Templeton Foundation: http://www.templeton.org/

McFarlin Library Research Guide - Religion: http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/guides/religion.htm

Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture: http://www.discovery.org/crsc/crsc1.html

Mars Hill Forum: http://www.marshillforum.org

American Scientific Affiliation: http://asa.calvin.edu/ASA/index.html

Society of Christian Philosophers: http://www.siu.edu/departments/cola/philos/SCP/

Theistic Philosophers: http://www.accessone.com/~pmartin/theistic.html

Biblical Creation Society: http://www.pages.org/bcs/index.html

Sean’s Christian Apologetic Page: http://www.members.tripod.com/~vantillian/main.html

The Y Files: http://www.yfiles.com

The Secular Web: http://www.infidels.com

The Atheism Web: http://www.infidels.org/news/atheism/overview.html Well-designed atheist-oriented web sites. Often work in conjunction with Leadership University to publish debates between theists and non-theists. Good book reviews (most notably, a fine, scholarly critique of Josh McDowell’s popular apologetic work, Evidence that Demands a Verdict) and links.