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Included here is a compilation of major sources. For works that contributed substantial information and analysis shaping the perspective of this author, special mention is given. Also indicated where appropriate, are the specific chapters in Faith & Freedom that draw on the titles listed below.
Adams, John. The Political Writings of John Adams. Edited by George A. Peek. Indianapolis: 1954.
Ahlstrom, Sidney A. A Religious History of the American People. New Haven, Conn.: 1972.
Andrist, Ralph K., ed. George Washington: A Biography in His Own Words. 2 vols. New York: 1972. Useful for Chapters 15,18, and 19.
Aristotle. Politics. Many editions. 330 B.C. Drawn on for Chapter 20, illustrating the difference between the American and the Greek understanding of a just social order.
Ashley, Maurice Percy. The English Civil War: A Concise History. London: 1974.
_____. The Glorious Revolution of 1688. London: 1966. Provides quotations and narrative information for Chapter 12.
_____. The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell. London: 1957. A sympathetic portrait of this enigmatic English leader, drawn on for Chapter 11.
Atkinson, James. Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism. London: 1968.
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the Americon Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.:1967. A standard interpretive study, which provides material and insights for Cha~ ters 21 and 22.
_____. New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: 1955. Provides supporting data and insights into the Puritan work ethic for Chapter 9.
_____. ed. Pamphlets of The American Revolution, 1750-i 776. Cambridge, Mass.: 1965. A superb collection of the popular political literature of the American Revolution, indispensable for understanding the issues that moved Americans of that time.
Baldwin, Alice M. The New England Clergy and the American Revolution. New York: 1928. Investigates the substantial role of the so-called "black regiment" of Protestant clergy in the American War for Independence.
Bancroft, George. History of the United States. 10 vols. Boston: 1838. A classic, and untalnted by modern prejudice.
Bass, Archer B. Protestantism in the United States. New York: 1929. Provides material supporting the thesis of this book.
Becker, Carl. The Declaration of Independence. New York: 1942. A standard Whig interpretation, providing insights for Chapters 1 and 18.
Booloff, Max. Thomas Jefferson and American Democracy. London: 1965.
Bonner, Gerald. St. Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies. London: 1970. A balanced portrait, useful for Chapter 3.
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Americans: The Colonial Experience. New York: 1958. One of the best interpretive accounts of the cultural, religious, and geographical forces shaping the early American mind, drawn on for Chapters 10 on Virginia and 13 on Pennsylvania.
_____. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson. Boston: 1960.
Bowan, Catherine Drinker. Miracle at Philadelphia: The Story of the Constitutional Convention, May to September 1787. Boston: 1966. A fascinating and dramatic narrative, providing dennis for Chapter 21.
Bradford, M. E. A Better Guide than Reason: Studies in the American Revolution. La Salle, III.: 1979.
_____. A Worthy Company: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution.
Marlborough, N.H.: 1982. A well-written and handy reference, providing materlal for Chapters 15 and 21.
Bradford, William. ‘Of Plymouth Plantation." From the original manuscript. Boston: 190L A firsthand account of the Mayflower voyage and settlement at Plymouth, and the primary source for Chapter 5.
Bridenhaugh, Carl. Mitre and Sceptre: Transatlantic Faiths, Ideas, Personalities and Politics, 1689-1775. New York: 1962. An indispensable work on the American struggle to prevent England from imposing an Anglican bishop on the colonies.
Bronner, Edwin B. William Penn's "Holy Experiment',: The Founding of Pennsylvania 1681-1701. New York: 1962. Provides colorlal material on the Quakers' problems in running a government for Chapter 13.
Brown, Peter R. L. Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley, Ca.: 1967. Indispensable for Chapter 3.
Brydon, George M. Virginia's Mother Church and the Political Conditions Under Which it Grew. 2 vols. Richmond, V~: 1947-52. Provides important material and insights for Chapter 10.
Buchan, John. Oliver Cromwell. London: 1934. A balanced portrait, providing quotations and narrative history for Chapter 11.
Bunyan, John. Pilgrim's Progress. Many editions. 1678.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Many editions. 1789. A classic of poiltical philosophy, shaping the thesis of Chapter 20.
_____. Speech on Reconciliation with the Colonies. Introduction by Jeffrey Hart. Chicago: 1964.
Bushman, Richard L., ed. The Great Awakening: Documents on the Revival of Religion. 1740-1745. New York: 1970. Contains useful primary source material drawn on in Chapter 14.
Calder, Angus. Revolutionary Empire: The Rise of the English-Speaking Empires fom the Fifteenth Century to the 1780s. New York: 1981. A sweeping narrative of British imperial expansion.
Chabannes, Jacques. Saint Augustine. New York: 1962. A standard biography of this troubled saint, providing material for Chapter 3.
Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. London: 1967.
Chadwick, Owen. The Reformation. London: 1968.
Chapman, Hester W. Four Fine Gentlemen. Lincoln, Neb.: 1977. Contains an excellent short biography of the Earl of Shaftesbury.
Clarke, Rev. S. J. The Life of James 11.2 vols. London: 1816.
Cochrane, Charles Morris. Christianity and Classical Culture. London: 1939. An important source for Chapter 2.
Cord, Robert L. Separation of Church and State. New York: 1982. An excellent study on the true meaning of the religion clause of the First Amendment, providing important material for Chapter 22.
Corwin, Edward S. The "Higher Law" Background of American Constitutional Law. Ithaca, New York: 1957. An indispensable study on the origins of American constitutional thought.
Craag, Gerald R. The Church and the Age of Reason, 1648-1789. New York: 1960. A good overview of the spiritual and intellectual life of the period, helpliil for Chapter 12.
_____. Puritanism in the Period of Persecution, 1660-1688. Cambridge, Mass.: 1957. Provides material for Chapter 12.
Cranston, Maurice W. John Locke: A Biography. London: 1957. Drawn on for the portrait of Locke in Chapter 12.
Craven, Wesley F. The Dissolution of the Virginia Company: The Failure of a Colonial Experiment. Gloucester, Mass.: 1932. Provides valuable material and narrative for Chapter 10.
Davies, Godfrey. The Restoration of Charles IL London: 1955. An important work on this peculiar period in Engiish history.
Deane, Herbert A. The Political and Social Ideas of St. Augustine. New York: 1963. Provides supporting material for the thesis of Chapter 3.
Dillon, Francis. The Pilgrims. Garden City, N.Y.: 1975.
Edwards, Jonathan. Thoughts on the Revival of Religion in New England. New York: 1740. A primary source for Chapter 14.
Eidsmoe, John. Christianity and the Constitution. Grand Rapids, Mich.: 1987.
_____. God and Cacsar. Westchester, Ill.: 1984.
Firth, Charles H. Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England. London: 1901. An important source for Chapter 11.
Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington. 4 vols. Boston: 1965-72. A major source for the portrait of Washington in Chapters 15, 18, and 19.
Fralin, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Many editions. 1791.
Frend, W. H. C. The Donatist Church: A Movement of Protest in Roman North Africa. Oxford: 1971. Provides background and details for Chapter 3 on this dissenting Christian movement which was so loathed by St. Augustine.
Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Many editions. 1776-88.
Goldberg, George. Church, State and the Constitution: The Religion Clause Upside Down. Washington, D.C.: 1984. A brief, but excellent, account of how modern court rulings have not merely distorted, but reversed the original intent of the First Amendment.
Grant, Robert M. Augustus to Constontine: The Thrust of the Christian Movement Into the Roman World. New York: 1970. A good overview ofthe period for Chapter 2.
_____. Early Christianity and Society. New York: 1977.
Haley, K H. D. The First Earl of Shaftesbury. Oxford: 1968.
Hall, Thomas Cummings. The Religious Background of American Culture. Boston: 1930. An important study of the pervasive inlluence of Puritan ideas on American life and thought. Contributes evidence for the thesis of Chapter 4, which is that the theology of John Wyclitfe laid the foundation for America's culture of dissent.
Hall, Verna N., ed. The Christian History of the American Revolution. San Francisoo: 1976.
_____. ed. 2 vols. The Christian History of the Constitution of the United States of America. San Francisco: 1962 and 1966. An enormously useful compilation of original documents and much ignored historical accounts, of which this book makes extensive use.
Haller, W. Liberty and Reformation in the Puritan Revolution. New York: ~55. Provides material buttressing the overall thesis of this book.
Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. "The Federalist Papers." Many editions: 1787. Drawn on extensively throughout this volume to illustrate the purpose of the federal government.
Harrison, Everett F. The Apostolic Church. Grand Rapids, Mich.: 1985.
Heimert, Alan. Religion and the American Mind: From the Great Awakening to the Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: 1966. Expands on Alice Baldwin's work on the role of the "black regiment" in the American Revolution.
Hill, Christopher. Milton and the English Revolution. New York: 1961. Provides quotations and supporting material for Chapter 11.
_____. Reformation to Industrial Revolution. New York: 1967. A readable economic history, useful for Chapter 9.
_____. Society and Puritanism. New York: 1964.
Hilton, R. H. The Decline of Serfdom in Medieval England. London: 1970. Hunt, Gaillard. James Madison and Religious Liberty. Washington, D.C.: 1902. Provides important material for Chapter 22.
Jefferson, Thomas. Autobiography. Introduction by Dumas Malone. New York: 1959.
_____. The Portable Thomas Jefferson. Edited by Merrill D. Peterson. New York: 1975 Contains Jefferson's "Notes on the State of Virginia" and his other basic writings.
Johnson, Paul. A History of the English People. New York: 1972. Supplies unflattering details for a portrait of King James I in Chapter 5, as well as needed specifics for Chapter 11 on the Puritan Revolution.
_____. A History of Christianity. New York: 1976. Contains graphic descriptions of early Christian martyrs useful for Chapter 2. Supplies details on how Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, helped provide the intellectual justification for uniting church and state, the aubiect of Chapter 3. A fascinating general narrative of Christianity through the ages.
Johnson, William J. George Washington, the Christian. Nashville, Tean.: 1919. Provides details on the much neglected aspects of George Washington's spiritual life, drawn on in these pages.
Jones, A. H. M. Constantine and the Conversion of Europe. London: 1948.
Jones, J.R. The First Whigs: The Politics of the Exclusion Crisis, 1678.1683. London:1961.
Kirk, Russell. The Roots of American Order. l"a Salle, 111.: 1974. An interesting polemic, stressing the virtue of tradition over messianic ideology, generally critical of the Puritan "City on a Hill" vision of the Bible society.
Lacy, Dan. The Meaning of the American Revolution. New York: 1964. A solid narrative of events leading up to the break from England and the formation of a new union, with special attention given to economic factors.
LaHaye, Tim. Faith of Our Founding Fathers. Breotwood, Tenn.: 1987. A very useful survey of the religious convictions of the framers.
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Many editions. 1690.
_____. The Reasonableness of Christianity. Many editions. 1695.
_____. Two Treatises of Civil Government. Many editions. 1690.
Madison, James. The Complete Madison: His Basic Writings. Edited by Saul K Padover. New York: 1953.
_____. Reports of the Debates in the Federal Convention. Many editions. 1787.
Mair, Paul L. First Christians: Pentecost and the Spread of Christianity. New York: 1976.
Malone, Domas. Jefferson: The Virginian. Boston: 1948.
_____. Jefferson and The Ordeal of Lii'erty. Boston: 1962.
Marshall, Peter, and David Manuel. The Light and the Glory. Old Tappan, N.J.: 1977. A polemical, but thoroughly researched, work arguing that the hand of God may have directed events leading to the creation of the United States. A source of quotations and useful detail supporting the thesis of this book.
Marty, Martin E. Pilgrims in Their Own Land: 500 Years of Religion in America. New York. 1984. A very readable survey of American Christianity.
_____.Religion, Awakening and Revolution. Wilmington, N.C.: 1977.
_____.The Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America. New York: 1970.
Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi Americana. 2 vols. Edited by Kenneth B. Murdock. Cambridge, Mass.: 1977.
May, Henry F. The Enlightenment in America. New York: 1976. Provides analysis and particulars on how Protestant and Whig ideas merged to form a distinct American political ideology, drawn on in Chapters 14 and 16.
McDonald, Forrest. A Constitutional History of the United States. New York: 1982.
_____. E Pluribus Unum: The Formation of the American Republic 1776-1790. Boston 1965.
_____. Novus Ordo Seclorum: The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution. Lawrence, KanSas: 1985. A landmark study on the ideas that had currency, as well as explaining exactly what occurred at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and the subsequent contest for ratification.
McNeill, J. T. The History and Character of Calvinism. Oxford: 1954.
Mead, Sidney E. The Lively Experiment: The Shaping of Christianity in America. New York: 1963. Provides quotations and supporting detail for Chapters 10 and 22.
Miller, John. Popery and the Politics of England, 1660-1688. New York: 1973. An excellent study on religion as the driving force in English politics during the Restoration peried.
Miller, Perry. Errand into the Wilderness Cambridge, Mass.: 1956. A slim classic on the Puritans, which proved very helpfiil in developing the thesis of Chapter 7 on Thomas Hooker's contribution to democracy in America.
_____. The New England Mind. 2 vols. New York: 1939.
_____. Jonathan Edwaros. Cleveland, Oh.: 1959. A thorough, but not entirely sympathetic, study of the mind of America's greatest theologian. Miller's book inspired a resurgence of recent scholarly interest in Edwards.
Miller, Perry, and Alan Heimert, eds. The Great Awakening. Indianapolis: 1967.
Momighano, A. D. The Conflict Between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century. Oxford: 1963.
Montesquiea, Baron de. The Spirit of the Laws. Many editions. 1748.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma. Boston: 1958.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. Harvard College in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. Canabridge, Mass.: 1936.
_____. The Oxford History of the American People. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: 1965. An important factual source on America's early history throughout these pages.
_____. Builders of the Bay Colony. Boston: 1964. A basic source for Chaptens 6 through 8.
Morley, Felix. The Power in the People. New York: 1949. A well-written polemical history making the case for limited government.
Neuhaus, Richard John. The Naked Public Square. Grand Rapids, Mich.: 1984. Points out the dangens in obliterating religion of the public life of a nation.
Newnon, Arthur Percival. The Colonizing Activities of the English Puritans. New Haven, Corm: 1914. One of the best works on the subject.
Niebuhr, H. R. The Kingdom of God in America. New York: 1937.
Nock, Albert Jay. Jefferson. New York: 1960.
Noll, Mark A. Christians in the American Revolution. Washington, D.C.: 1977.
Ogg, David. England in the Reign of Charles IL 2 vols. Oxford: 1934. Provides important narrative information for Chapter 12.
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Many editions. 1776.
Paolucci, Henry, Sd. The Political Writings of St. Augustine. Chicago: 1965.
Parker, T. M. The English Reformation to 1558. New York: 1966.
Paul, Rebert S. The Lord Protector: Religion and Politics in the Life of Oliver Cromwell. London: 1955.
Perowne, Stewart. The End of the Roman World. London: 1966.
Perry, Ralph Barton. Puritanism and Democracy. New York: 1944. A sprawling, learned work which was instrumental in shaping this book's thesis on the link between Puritanism and constitutional democracy, and provided many of the particulars illustrating the workings of the Puritan mind cited in Chapters 5 and 6.
Plato. The Republic. Many editions. 850 B.C. Drawn on for the sections in Chapter 20 on the difference between the American and Plato's republic.
Plum, Harry Grant. Restoration Puritanism: A Study of the Growth of English Liberty. Chapel Hill, N.C.: 1943.
Pollock, John, George Whitefield and the Great Awakening. Garden City, N.Y.: 1972. Provides colorfid details on this great evangelist's nnnistry throughout the United States for Chapter 14.
Pound, Roscoe. The Development of Constitutional Guarantees of Liberty. New Haven, Conn.: 1957. Provides vital background for any study of the development of American constitutional ideas.
Prall, Stuart E. The Bloodless Revolution: England, 1688. Madison, Wisc.: 1985. Provides narrative information and insight into the meaning of events for Chapter 12.
Reichley, James N Religion in American Public Life. Washington, D.C.: 1985. Provides material for Chapter 23 supporting the thesis that ancient Greece, the archetype of the civil humanist polity, ultimately fell apart because of the absence of a spiritual bond.
Rosenberg, Nathan, and L. E. Birdsell, Jr. How The West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World. New York: 1986. Contributes important in-sights and material for Chapter 9 on how Protestant thoology reinforced the capitaiist impulse.
Rossiter, Clinton, The Grand Convention. New York: 1966. One of the most relied upon studies of the Constitutional Convention.
_____.Seedtime of the Republic: The Origin of the American Tradition of Political Liberty. New York: 1953.
Rothbard, Murray N. Conceived in Liberty. Vol.1. New Rechelle, N.Y.: 1975.
Rushdoony, Reusas John. Christianity and the State. Vallecito, Ca.: 1986. A valuable little book, demonstrating why Christianity is one of the greatest restraining iniluences on government expansion.
_____. The Messianic Character of American Education. Nutley, N.J.: 1963. Charts the growth of public education in America and its flinction as a government tool of indoctrination into the secular humanist world-view.
Rutman, Darrett B. Winthrop's Boston. Williamsburg, Va.: 1965.
Sanders, Thomas G. Protestant Concepts of Church and State. New York: 1964.
Schaefer, Francis A. A Christian Manifesto. Winchester, Ill.: 1981.
Scott, Otto J. Robespierre: The Voice of Virtue. New York: 1974.
Simpson, Alan. Puritanism in Old and New England. Chicago: 1955. A largely negative portrait of the Puritan movement.
Singer, C. Greg. A Theological Interpretation of American History. Nutley, N.J.: 1969. A study of the role of theology, and specifically Scripture, in shaping the American political and cultural tradition.
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Natum and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Many editions. 1776.
Smith, John H. Constantine The Great. London: 197L A mostly favorable portrait of this pivotal Roman emperor, drawn on for Chapter 2.
Smith, M. A. The Church Under Siege. Downers Grove, III.: 1976. A useflil account of Christianity during the Dark Ages.
Smith, Page. A New Age Now Begins: A People's History of *he American Revolution. 2 vols. New York: 1976. A large, but very readable, narrative history of the American Revolution that supplied details and useflil quotations for Chapters 16 through 19.
Stacy, John. John Wycliffe and Reform. London: 1964. Supplies quotations and particulars for Chapter 4.
Starkey, Marion Lona. The Congregational Way. Garden City, N.Y.: 1966. A well written narrative of the influence of Congregationalist Christians on American life, drawn on for Chapters 6 through 8.
Stokes, Anson Phelps. Church and State in the United States. 3 vols. New York: 1950. Sweet, William W. Religion in Colonial America. New York: 1942.
Sydnor, Charles S. American Revolutionaries in the Making. New York: 1952. Provides usefiil themes for Chapter 10's assessment of why Virginia produced so many of America's most prominent political leaders during the founding decades.
Tawney, R. H. Religion and the Rise of Capitalism. New York: 1926.
Thornton, John W., ed. The Pulpit and The American Revolution. Boston: 1860. Contains important sermons of the Revolutionary War period, drawn on for Chapters 16, 17, 18, and 19.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. Many editions. 1835.
A classic of political and sociological reporting and analysis, quoted extensively throughout this work:
Tracy, Patricia J. Jonathan Edwards, Pastor: Religion and Society in Eighteenth Century Northampton. New York: 1979.
Trevelyan, G.M. England in the Age of Wycliffe. London: 1946.
_____. The English Revolution, 1688-1689. London: 1938. Provides a Wnig interpretation of events, useftil for Chapter 12.
Tindall, George Brown. America: A Narrative History. New York: 1984.
Very helpftil as a reference for important events.
Tyson, Joseph B. A Study of Early Chrtstianity. New York: 1973.
Ver Steeg, Clarence L. The Formative Years, 16074763. New York: 1964.
An intelligent analysis of the cultural, economic, and religious forces shaping colonial America.
Walsh, Michael, S. J. The Triumph of the Meek: Why Early Christianity Succeeded. New York: 1986.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: The Relationship Religion and the Economic and Social Life in Modern Culture. Germany: 1904; reprinted., New York: 1958. A classic study on the psychological conditions that laid the foundation for the emergence of capitaiist society. Weber's thesis forms the core of Chapter 9.
Weiss, J. Earliest Christianity. London: 1959.
Wertenhaker, Thomas J. The Shaping of Colonial Virginia. New York: 1958.
Western, J. R. Monarchy and Revolution: The English State in the 1680s. Totowa, N.J.: 1972. A thorough study of the events and intellectual changes leading to the English Revolution of 1688, providing material and insights for Chapter 12.
Whitehead, John. The Second American Revolution. Elgin, 111.: 1982.
An excellent polemic arguing for America's return to the original intent of the Constitution, providing material for the section in Chapter 1 on the origin of America's common law tradition.
Wilbur, William H. The Making of George Washington. DeLand, Fla.: 1970.
Wills, Garry. Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. New York: 1979. Grievously flawed in its analysis of this period in American history, but supplies some useful details.
Wilson, Jr., Vincent. The Book of Great American Documents. Brookville, Md.: 1982. An important primary source.
Winslow, Ola Elizabeth. Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758. New York: 1961. The Pulitzer Prize winning biography of the great Puritan divine, providing material for Chapter 14.
Winthrop, John. History of New England, 1630-1649.2 vols. Edited by James Savage. New York: 1972. A primary source for Chapters 6, 7, and 8.
Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 17764787. Chapel Hill, N.C.:1969. Examines the evolution of an American philosophy of government during the founding period.
Wood, H. G. Christianity and Civilization. New York: 1973.
Woodward, W. E. George Washington: The Image and the Man. New York: 1926.
Workman, H. B. John Wyclif A Study of the English Medieval Church. 2 vols. Oxford:1926. The dellaitive biography drawn on substantially for Chapter 4.
Wright, Esmond. Fabric of Freedom, 1763.1800. New York: 1961.
A study by a British author of the emergence of American nationalism under the stress of war, useful for Chapter 19.
Wright, Louis B. First Gentlemen of Virginia. San Marino, Ca.: 1940.
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© Copyright 1988, Benjamin Hart